Cover Image of IGNOU BBYCT-133 B.Sc. CBCS Botany Solved Assignment 2024

IGNOU BBYCT-133 Solved Assignment 2024 | B.Sc. CBCS Botany

Solved By – Anjali Patel – Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) from Mumbai University


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IGNOU BBYCT-133 Assignment Question Paper 2024



  1. a) Describe the numerical and structural attributes of population.
    b) Discuss the interactions in a community.
  2. a) Discuss the origin and formation of soil.
    b) What are the factors affecting soil formation?
  3. Discuss the different factors affecting distribution of insolation.
  4. Discuss the adaptations in aquatic plants.
  5. a) Discuss the succession in oak forest.
    b) Describe the stages in a hydrosere.
  6. Write a note on taxonomic evidence from phytochemistry.
  7. a) Discuss the salient features of structure of taxonomic hierarchy.
    b) Write a note on the properties of hierarchical system.
  8. a) What are the salient features of preamble of ICN?
    b) What are holotype and neotype?
  9. Write short notes on:
    i) Apomorphic and Plesiomorphic Characters
    ii) Biodiversity hotspot areas in India
    iii) Double channel energy flow model
    iv) Carbon cycle
  10. Discuss the analytical characters of a plant community.
\(cos\left(2\theta \right)=cos^2\theta -sin^2\theta \)

BBYCT-133 Sample Solution 2024



BBYCT-133 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. a) Describe the numerical and structural attributes of population.
The study of populations in ecology often focuses on their numerical and structural attributes, which help in understanding the dynamics, health, and trends within a population. These attributes are crucial for conservation, management, and understanding the ecological role of a species. Here’s a detailed look at these attributes:

Numerical Attributes

  1. Population Size (N): This is the total number of individuals in a population. It’s a fundamental attribute that influences the population’s chances of survival and its impact on the ecosystem.
  2. Population Density: Refers to the number of individuals per unit area or volume. High density can lead to competition for resources, while low density might indicate challenges in finding mates.
  3. Population Growth Rate: This measures how fast a population is increasing or decreasing in size. It depends on birth rates, death rates, immigration, and emigration.
  4. Natality (Birth Rate): The rate at which new individuals are added to the population through birth.
  5. Mortality (Death Rate): The rate at which individuals are lost from the population due to death.
  6. Immigration and Emigration: The movement of individuals into (immigration) and out of (emigration) the population, which affects its size and genetic composition.

Structural Attributes

  1. Age Structure: Refers to the proportion of individuals in different age groups within a population. A typical age structure includes pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive age groups.
  2. Sex Ratio: The ratio of males to females in the population. A balanced sex ratio is often critical for the sustainability of the population, especially in sexually reproducing species.
  3. Genetic Composition: The genetic diversity within a population, which affects its adaptability to environmental changes and resistance to diseases.
  4. Spatial Distribution: How individuals in a population are spaced within their habitat. Patterns include clumped, uniform, or random distributions, influenced by factors like resource availability, social interactions, and environmental conditions.
  5. Social Structure: In species with complex social systems, the organization of individuals into groups (like packs or herds) and their roles and hierarchies can be important.

Importance of Population Attributes

  • Conservation and Management: Understanding these attributes is crucial for wildlife management and conservation efforts. For instance, a declining population growth rate or skewed sex ratio can be warning signs requiring conservation actions.
  • Ecological Studies: These attributes help in understanding the ecological role of a species, its interaction with the environment, and its impact on ecosystem dynamics.
  • Predictive Modeling: They are used in models to predict future trends in population size and structure, which can be essential for long-term planning and conservation strategies.


Numerical and structural attributes provide a comprehensive picture of a population’s status and trends. They are essential tools in ecology for assessing the health and viability of populations, understanding ecological relationships, and guiding conservation and management decisions.
b) Discuss the interactions in a community.
In ecology, a community refers to a group of different species living and interacting in a shared environment. The interactions among these species play a crucial role in shaping the community structure and ecosystem dynamics. These interactions can be broadly classified into several categories, each with its own ecological significance:

Types of Interactions in a Community

  1. Competition:
    • Definition: Occurs when individuals or species vie for the same resource that is in limited supply.
    • Types: Intraspecific (within a species) and interspecific (between different species).
    • Impact: Can lead to resource partitioning, niche specialization, and sometimes exclusion of a species from a habitat.
  2. Predation:
    • Definition: Involves a predator species that hunts and eats another species, the prey.
    • Impact: Influences prey populations, can lead to evolutionary adaptations like camouflage or defense mechanisms, and affects the food chain dynamics.
  3. Parasitism:
    • Definition: A relationship where the parasite lives on or in a host organism, deriving nutrients at the host’s expense.
    • Impact: Can affect host health and survival, lead to coevolution of host and parasite, and influence population dynamics.
  4. Mutualism:
    • Definition: A symbiotic interaction where both species benefit from the relationship.
    • Examples: Pollination (between bees and flowers), nitrogen fixation (between leguminous plants and Rhizobium bacteria).
    • Impact: Often critical for the survival and reproduction of one or both species, and can drive major ecological and evolutionary processes.
  5. Commensalism:
    • Definition: A relationship where one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed.
    • Examples: Epiphytic plants growing on trees, barnacles attached to whales.
    • Impact: Can provide advantages like transportation or habitat for the benefiting species.
  6. Amensalism:
    • Definition: An interaction where one species is inhibited or destroyed while the other is unaffected.
    • Examples: A large tree shading out smaller plants, the secretion of antibiotics by fungi.
    • Impact: Can influence community structure by inhibiting or reducing certain populations.

Ecological and Evolutionary Implications

  • Shaping Communities: These interactions shape the structure, composition, and biodiversity of communities.
  • Driving Evolution: Interactions like predation and competition can drive evolutionary changes, leading to adaptations like predator-prey arms races or competitive coevolution.
  • Influencing Ecosystem Functions: Interactions impact ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, energy flow, and primary productivity.


Interactions in a community are complex and multifaceted, influencing not only the survival and behavior of individual species but also the overall structure and function of ecosystems. Understanding these interactions is key to ecology, conservation biology, and environmental management, as they play a critical role in maintaining the balance and health of natural environments.
  1. a) Discuss the origin and formation of soil.
The origin and formation of soil, a process known as soil genesis, is a complex and dynamic process influenced by a multitude of factors over extended periods of time. Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks and the subsequent addition of organic material from living organisms. The process of soil formation is governed by five key factors: parent material, climate, living organisms, topography, and time.

Key Factors in Soil Formation

  1. Parent Material: This is the underlying geological material (generally bedrock or a superficial or drift deposit) in which soils form. Soils inherit many characteristics from their parent material, such as mineral composition, texture, and chemical properties.
  2. Climate: Weather conditions greatly influence the rate of weathering of the parent material and the type of soil formed. Temperature and precipitation are the most important climate factors. They determine the amount of water in the soil and the rate at which chemical and physical weathering occurs.
  3. Living Organisms: Plants, animals, microorganisms, and humans affect soil formation. Plants contribute organic matter and nutrients to the soil through leaf fall and root decay. Microorganisms help in the decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients back into the soil. Animals can modify soils through activities like burrowing, which helps in aerating the soil. Human activities, such as agriculture and urbanization, significantly alter soil characteristics.
  4. Topography: The shape and slope of the landscape can influence soil formation. Slope and aspect affect the moisture and temperature of soil. Steep slopes may lead to erosion, while flat areas may be prone to waterlogging. Elevation can also impact climate conditions, and thus soil formation.
  5. Time: Soil formation is a slow process. It takes hundreds to thousands of years for a significant layer of soil to develop. Over time, soils undergo changes and develop layers, known as soil horizons, including topsoil (rich in organic material) and subsoil (rich in minerals).

Soil Formation Processes

  1. Weathering of Rocks: The primary step in soil formation is the weathering of rock (physical, chemical, and biological), which breaks down the rock into smaller particles. Physical weathering includes freeze-thaw cycles and thermal expansion, while chemical weathering involves processes like hydrolysis, oxidation, and carbonation.
  2. Addition of Organic Material: The incorporation of organic matter from decaying plants and animals adds nutrients and improves the soil structure.
  3. Leaching and Eluviation: Water moving through soil can leach away soluble materials, and finer particles can be transported (eluviated) from the upper to lower layers.
  4. Horizon Formation: Different layers (horizons) form in the soil as a result of organic matter accumulation, leaching, and human or animal activity.


The formation of soil is an integral part of the Earth’s ecosystem, providing the medium for plant growth, a regulator of water supplies, a habitat for countless organisms, and a key component in the global carbon cycle. Understanding soil formation helps in managing soil resources sustainably, which is crucial for agriculture, forestry, and combating land degradation.

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\(cos\left(2\theta \right)=cos^2\theta -sin^2\theta \)

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