Cover of IGNOU BBYCT-137 Solved Assignment 2024 for B.Sc. CBCS Botany

IGNOU BBYCT-137 Solved Assignment 2024 | B.Sc. CBCS Botany

Solved By – Anjali Patel – Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) from Mumbai University


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IGNOU BBYCT-137 Assignment Question Paper 2024



BBYCT-137 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. a) Discuss the components of water potential.
    b) How is the inward to outward flow of water from cell to cell calculated?
  2. a) Describe the mechanism of stomatal opening.
    b) Write a note on ABA signaling model to explain stomatal movements.
  3. a) Discuss the techniques to study the role of mineral nutrients.
    b) What are the roles of F e F e Fe\mathrm{Fe}Fe and Z n Z n Zn\mathrm{Zn}Zn in mineral nutrition in plants?
  4. a) Describe active transport and role of pumps in nutrient transport in plants.
    b) What is the structure of chlorophyll?
  5. a) Discuss the photosynthetic unit and Light Harvesting Complexes.
    b) What is Emerson enhancement effect?
  6. Discuss the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and significance of CAM plants.
  7. a) Describe the experiments on translocation of organic substances through phloem.
    b) What is Munch mass flow model for translocation?
  8. Discuss the following:
    a) Mechanism of enzyme action
    b) Regulation of glycolysis
  9. a) Describe ammonium assimilation and its regulation.
    b) What are bacteroides?
  10. Write short notes:
    a) Bioassay of gibberellin
    b) Brassinosteroids
    c) Heat shock proteins
    d) Properties of phytochrome

BBYCT-137 Sample Solution 2024



BBYCT-137 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. a) Discuss the components of water potential.
Water potential is a key concept in understanding how water moves in plants and soils. It quantifies the potential energy of water in a system, determining the direction in which water will flow. Water potential is typically measured in units of pressure, such as megapascals (MPa). The total water potential in a plant or soil system is influenced by several components.

1. Definition of Water Potential

Water potential is defined as the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water. It’s used to predict the movement of water from one area to another. In plants, it plays a crucial role in understanding water uptake, transport, and loss.

2. Components of Water Potential

2.1. Gravitational Potential

  • Explanation: Gravitational potential refers to the energy associated with the position of water in a gravitational field. Gravity affects the movement of water, especially over large distances.
  • Role in Plants: It impacts water movement in tall trees, where water must be transported to significant heights against gravity.

2.2. Pressure Potential (Turgor Pressure)

  • Definition: Pressure potential is the physical pressure exerted on water. In plant cells, this is largely due to turgor pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the cell contents against the cell wall.
  • Positive and Negative Pressure: Positive pressure potential occurs in living cells due to turgor pressure, while negative pressure potential can occur in xylem due to transpiration.

2.3. Osmotic Potential (Solute Potential)

  • Explanation: Osmotic potential refers to the effect of solutes (such as salts and sugars) dissolved in water. The presence of solutes lowers the water potential.
  • Significance: It’s particularly important in the uptake of water by roots and in the control of stomatal opening and closing.

2.4. Matric Potential

  • Description: Matric potential is the potential energy of water bound to surfaces, such as soil particles or cell walls, due to adhesive forces.
  • Relevance in Soils: In soils, matric potential is crucial as it affects the availability of water to plant roots.

3. Measurement of Water Potential

  • Techniques: Various methods are used to measure water potential, including the use of pressure chambers, psychrometers, and tensiometers.
  • Units: Water potential is commonly measured in megapascals (MPa) or bars.

4. Water Potential in Plant Physiology

4.1. Water Uptake by Roots

  • Role of Water Potential Gradient: Water moves from the soil into root cells where the water potential is lower due to solute concentration and cell pressure.

4.2. Transport Through the Plant

  • Xylem Transport: The negative pressure potential in the xylem, created by transpiration, pulls water up from the roots to the leaves.
  • Regulation of Water Loss: Stomatal opening and closing are regulated based on the water potential of leaf cells.

4.3. Stomatal Dynamics

  • Impact on Stomatal Opening: Guard cells regulate their turgor pressure, and thus their water potential, to control stomatal opening in response to environmental conditions.

5. Water Potential in Soil Science

  • Soil Water Availability: The water potential of soil determines the availability of water for plant uptake.
  • Field Capacity and Wilting Point: Soil water potential concepts like field capacity (the amount of water soil can hold after excess water has drained away) and wilting point (the soil water potential where a plant wilts and cannot recover) are critical in agriculture.

6. Environmental Influences

  • Impact of Environmental Factors: Environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, and soil moisture content significantly affect water potential in plants and soils.

7. Practical Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture

  • Irrigation Management: Understanding water potential helps in optimizing irrigation practices to ensure efficient water use.
  • Crop Selection and Breeding: Knowledge of water potential is used in selecting and breeding crop varieties suited to specific moisture conditions.


The concept of water potential is fundamental in understanding how water moves within and between plants and their environment. Its components – gravitational, pressure, osmotic, and matric potentials – interact to determine the total water potential, influencing critical processes like water uptake, transport, and loss in plants. In soil science, water potential is key to understanding soil water availability and management. The application of water potential principles in agriculture and horticulture contributes to efficient water use and better crop management, highlighting its importance in sustainable environmental practices.
b) How is the inward to outward flow of water from cell to cell calculated?
The inward to outward flow of water from cell to cell in plants is primarily determined by the concept of water potential. Water potential (ψ) is a measure of the potential energy of water in a particular system compared to pure water, and it influences the direction and rate of water movement. The movement of water from cell to cell is calculated based on the gradient of water potential between these cells. Here’s how this process is typically analyzed:

Understanding Water Potential

  1. Water Potential Components: Water potential in plant cells is influenced by two main factors:
    • Solute Potential (Osmotic Potential, ψs): The effect of solutes dissolved in water, which lowers the water potential.
    • Pressure Potential (ψp): The physical pressure exerted on water, such as turgor pressure in plant cells.
  2. Overall Water Potential: The total water potential is the sum of these components:
    ψ = ψ p + ψ s ψ = ψ p + ψ s psi=psi _(p)+psi _(s)\psi = \psi_p + \psi_sψ=ψp+ψs

Calculating Water Flow Between Cells

  1. Determining Water Potential Gradient: The flow of water occurs from regions of higher water potential to regions of lower water potential. First, calculate the water potential for each cell.
  2. Quantifying the Gradient: The difference in water potential between adjacent cells determines the gradient. For example, if cell A has a water potential of -0.5 MPa and cell B has -0.7 MPa, water will move from cell A to cell B.
  3. Flow Rate Calculation: The rate of water flow can be influenced by the magnitude of the water potential gradient and the permeability of the cell membrane. Quantifying this precisely often requires more complex biophysical equations and can depend on specific plant properties.

Factors Influencing Water Movement

  1. Membrane Permeability: The permeability of the cell membrane to water, often facilitated by aquaporins, affects the rate of water movement.
  2. Cell Size and Surface Area: Larger surface areas can facilitate faster water movement.
  3. External Conditions: Environmental factors like humidity, temperature, and soil water potential also influence the overall water movement in plants.
  4. Pathway of Movement: Water can move via the symplastic route (through the cytoplasm, connected by plasmodesmata) or the apoplastic route (around the cells, through cell walls and intercellular spaces).


While the fundamental principle behind the inward to outward flow of water in plants is the gradient of water potential, the actual calculation of this flow can be complex and depends on various factors including cell characteristics, environmental conditions, and specific plant properties. Understanding these dynamics is essential in fields such as plant physiology, agriculture, and environmental science.

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