Cover of IGNOU BZYCT-131 B.Sc. CBCS Zoology Solved Assignment 2024

IGNOU BZYCT-131 Solved Assignment 2024 | B.Sc. CBCS Zoology

Solved By – Anjali Patel – Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) from Mumbai University


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IGNOU BZYCT-131 Assignment Question Paper 2024



BZYCT-131 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. a) Make a flow chart to show how animals can be classified according to their level of organisation, symmetry, germ layers and developmental patterns.
b) Define bilateral symmetry. What are the advantages that bilaterally symmetrical animals have over radially symmetrical animals?
  1. a) Describe the characteristic features of Cnidarians.
b) What do you mean by polymorphism? Expalin the functions of various polymorphic forms of Hydrozoa.
  1. What is parasitic adaptation? Explain the adaptations that have taken place in Ascaris lumbricoides.
  2. Write short notes on the following with suitable diagrams:
    i) Book lungs of Arachnida
    ii) Pectines of scorpions
  3. a) What are the characteristics of echinderms that are unique to them and not found in other phyla?
b) Describe the water vascular system of a seastar.
  1. Give one word/short answer for the following:
    i) Give one prominent difference between sharks and rays.
    ii) What kind of tail characterises elasmobranchs?
    iii) In what way are sharks well adapted for predatory life habit?
    iv) What is the function of the lateral line system in elasmobranchs?
    v) How is the Chimera different from sharks and rays?
  2. i) Describe parental care in amphibians.
    ii) Distinguish between anurans and urodeles.
  3. What are the three main reptile lines that evolved from the amniotes during the Mesozoic era and from which lineage did the present day reptiles evolve? How would you distinguish among the anapsid, diapsid and synapsid types of skull.
  4. The special adaptations of birds all contribute to two factors essential for flight namely, more power and less weight. Explain how each of the following contributes to one or the other or both:
    (i) Endothermy
    (ii) Respiratory system
    (iii) Skeleton system
    (iv) Excretory system.
  5. a) List and give one function of the four glands of the skin.
b) Differentiate between horns and antlers and give an example each of an animal with horn and an antler.
\(sin^2\left(\frac{\theta }{2}\right)=\frac{1-cos\:\theta }{2}\)

BZYCT-131 Sample Solution 2024



BZYCT-131 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. a) Make a flow chart to show how animals can be classified according to their level of organisation, symmetry, germ layers and developmental patterns.
Here’s a simplified flowchart:
                        Animal Classification

                    |                             |
                Level of Organization       Symmetry
                    |                             |
            |-----------|                |-----------------|
            |           |                |                 |
          Cellular     Tissue         Radial           Bilateral
          Organization Organization  Symmetry         Symmetry
            |                             |
      |-------------|                |-----------------|
      |             |                |                 |
  Diploblastic   Triploblastic    Two Germ Layers  Three Germ Layers
      |                             |
  |---------|                  |-----------------|
  |         |                  |                 |
   Ectoderm  Endoderm        Endoderm          Mesoderm

  Developmental Patterns
  |         |
Direct     Indirect
  Development  Development
      |         |
  |-----|  |-----------|
  |     |  |           |
No Larvae  Larvae   Metamorphosis
            |           |
          |---|       |---|
          |   |       |   |
      Complete  Incomplete  Simple
     Metamorphosis  Metamorphosis
  • Animals are first classified based on their Level of Organization into "Cellular Organization" or "Tissue Organization."
  • Next, they are classified based on their Symmetry into "Radial Symmetry" or "Bilateral Symmetry."
  • Depending on their level of organization, animals are further categorized based on their Germ Layers into "Diploblastic" (two germ layers) or "Triploblastic" (three germ layers).
  • Finally, animals are categorized based on their Developmental Patterns into "Direct Development" or "Indirect Development." Indirect development can involve larvae and metamorphosis, which can be "Complete Metamorphosis" or "Incomplete Metamorphosis."
This simplified flowchart provides a basic framework for classifying animals.
b) Define bilateral symmetry. What are the advantages that bilaterally symmetrical animals have over radially symmetrical animals?

Bilateral Symmetry Definition

Bilateral symmetry in animals refers to a body plan where the organism can be divided into two identical halves along a single plane, which runs from the front (anterior) to the back (posterior) of the organism. Each half of a bilaterally symmetrical animal is a mirror image of the other. This type of symmetry is characteristic of most animals, including humans. The presence of distinct front and back ends (anterior and posterior), as well as upper and lower sides (dorsal and ventral), is typical in bilaterally symmetrical animals.

Advantages of Bilateral Symmetry

  1. Directional Movement: Bilaterally symmetrical animals are typically more efficient at directional movement. They have a distinct head end (cephalization) which usually contains sensory organs and a brain, allowing them to effectively sense and move towards or away from stimuli. This is advantageous for finding food, escaping predators, and exploring the environment.
  2. Central Nervous System Development: The evolution of bilateral symmetry is associated with the development of a more complex central nervous system. The concentration of nerve tissues and sensory organs in the head or anterior end leads to better coordination and response to stimuli.
  3. Streamlined Body Shape: Many bilaterally symmetrical animals have a streamlined body, aiding in efficient movement, especially in aquatic environments. This shape reduces resistance while moving through the medium.
  4. Complex Organ Systems: Bilateral symmetry allows for the development of more complex and specialized organ systems. Different parts of the body can evolve to perform specific functions, leading to increased efficiency and specialization.
  5. Segmentation Possibilities: In many bilaterally symmetrical animals, the body can be divided into repeated segments, each potentially containing replicated sets of organs. This segmentation can lead to greater complexity and specialization of body structures.
  6. Increased Mobility and Flexibility: The arrangement of muscles in bilaterally symmetrical animals typically allows for greater mobility and a wider range of movement, which is beneficial for various activities including capturing prey, defense, and adaptation to diverse environments.
In summary, bilateral symmetry has been a significant evolutionary step that has enabled animals to develop higher levels of complexity, mobility, and adaptation to their environment. This body plan is more suited to an active lifestyle and complex behaviors compared to radial symmetry, which is more common in stationary or slow-moving organisms.
  1. a) Describe the characteristic features of Cnidarians.
Cnidarians are a diverse group of aquatic animals known for their distinctive characteristics. Here are some of the key features that define Cnidarians:
  1. Radial Symmetry: Cnidarians exhibit radial symmetry, meaning their body parts radiate from a central point. This symmetry allows them to interact with the environment from all directions.
  2. Diploblastic Organization: They are diploblastic, having two primary layers of cells – the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer). Between these layers is a gelatinous substance called mesoglea.
  3. Presence of Cnidocytes: A unique feature of Cnidarians is the presence of specialized cells called cnidocytes, which contain stinging structures known as nematocysts. These are used for defense and capturing prey.
  4. Two Main Body Forms: Cnidarians exhibit two distinct body forms in their life cycle – the sessile polyp and the free-swimming medusa. Polyps are generally cylindrical in shape and adhere to a substrate, while medusae are bell-shaped and mobile.
  5. Simple Digestive System: They have a simple digestive system with a single opening that serves as both mouth and anus. This opening leads to the gastrovascular cavity where digestion occurs.
  6. Nerve Net: Instead of a centralized nervous system, Cnidarians possess a nerve net, a simple system of nerve cells interconnected throughout their body, allowing for basic responses to environmental stimuli.
  7. Reproduction: Cnidarians can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Sexual reproduction typically involves the release of eggs and sperm into the water, while asexual reproduction often occurs through budding.
  8. Aquatic Habitat: They are predominantly marine animals, although some, like the freshwater Hydra, are found in freshwater environments.
  9. Variety of Forms: The phylum Cnidaria includes a wide range of organisms such as jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, and hydras.
  10. No Excretory or Respiratory Organs: Cnidarians lack specialized excretory and respiratory organs. These functions are carried out through the body surface by diffusion.
These characteristics define Cnidarians as a unique and important group in the aquatic ecosystem, playing various roles from reef builders to predators.

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\(cos\left(2\theta \right)=cos^2\theta -sin^2\theta \)

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