BEGLA-137 Solved Assignment 2024 | Language through Literature | IGNOU

Fill in the blanks with suitable adverbs or prepositions to form phrasal verbs:
i) Please take ___your coat.
ii) We have taken ___a new project.
iii) I was taken ___ a doctor because I had been able to cure some people in the neighborhood.
iv) Seeta ___ takes her mother.
v) The old lady offered to take ___ the homeless stranger.

Expert Answer

i) Please take off your coat.
ii) We have taken on a new project.
iii) I was taken to a doctor because I had been able to cure some people in the neighborhood.
iv) Seeta always takes after her mother.
v) The old lady offered to take in the homeless stranger.


Verified Answer

Give meanings of the phrasal verbs in the following sentences in a few words.
i) Don’t give in to the threats of the terrorists.
ii) The engine gives off steam.
iii) They tried to cover up the evil dead.
iv) I fell for the beautiful girl.
v) We’ll see you off at the station

Expert Answer

i) Don't give in to the threats of the terrorists.

  • Meaning: Don't surrender or yield to the threats of the terrorists.

ii) The engine gives off steam.

  • Meaning: The engine emits or releases steam.

iii) They tried to cover up the evil deed.

  • Meaning: They attempted to hide or conceal the evil act.

iv) I fell for the beautiful girl.

  • Meaning: I became romantically attracted to the beautiful girl.

v) We'll see you off at the station.

  • Meaning: We will accompany you to the station to say goodbye and ensure your departure safely.
Verified Answer

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences by using the correct forms of the words given below. Indicate in each case whether the word is used as a noun or a verb. (Each word has to be used twice, once as a noun and once as a verb.) pitch, race, litter, file, spell.
i) He usually ___ the ball at the right place.
ii) The cricket ___ is wet today.
iii) Many thoughts ___ through his mind when his son was in the operating theatre.
iv) I wish to see his personal ___
v) You have to feed the cat and its ___
vi) He has ___ the word wrongly.
vii) She came first in the 100 -metre ___
viii) The magician cast a ___ on her.
ix) Please ___ this letter.
x) ‘The muddy ground was ___ with crawling worms’. (Khushwant Singh: The Mark of Vishnu)

Expert Answer

i) He usually pitches the ball at the right place. (verb)
The pitch of the cricket is wet today. (noun)

ii) The cricket pitch is wet today. (noun)
He usually pitches the ball at the right place. (verb)

iii) Many thoughts raced through his mind when his son was in the operating theatre. (verb)
Many thoughts littered through his mind when his son was in the operating theatre. (verb/noun)

iv) I wish to see his personal file. (noun)
I need to file this document. (verb)

v) You have to feed the cat and its litter. (noun)
You have to litter the area with cat food. (verb)

vi) He has spelled the word wrongly. (verb)
He has a good spelling. (noun)

vii) She came first in the 100-meter race. (noun)
She raced to the finish line. (verb)

viii) The magician cast a spell on her. (noun)
Please spell this word for me. (verb)

ix) Please file this letter. (verb)
I need to access the file. (noun)

x) ‘The muddy ground was littered with crawling worms.’ (verb)
‘The pitch was challenging for the players.’ (noun)


Verified Answer

Write short notes on any four of the following. Give suitable examples.
i) Alliteration
ii) Assonance
iii) Rhyme
iv) Onomatopoeia
v) Rhythm

Expert Answer

i) Alliteration:

  • Definition: Alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant sounds in a series of words or phrases within a sentence or verse.
  • Example: "She sells seashells by the seashore." Here, the repetition of the "s" sound in "she sells seashells" is an example of alliteration.

ii) Assonance:

  • Definition: Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within words in close proximity.
  • Example: "The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain." The repetition of the long "a" sound in "rain," "Spain," and "plain" is an example of assonance.

iii) Rhyme:

  • Definition: Rhyme is the similarity or correspondence of sounds between words, especially at the end of lines of poetry or in song lyrics.
  • Example: "Roses are red, violets are blue, sugar is sweet, and so are you." In this classic poem, "blue" and "you" rhyme at the end of lines, creating a pleasing sound pattern.

iv) Onomatopoeia:

  • Definition: Onomatopoeia refers to words that imitate or resemble the sound they describe.
  • Example: "Buzz," "meow," "boom," and "sizzle" are all examples of onomatopoeic words. They mimic the sounds of a bee, a cat, an explosion, and something sizzling on a hot surface, respectively.

v) Rhythm:

  • Definition: Rhythm refers to the pattern of beats or stresses in a poem or piece of writing. It can create a sense of musicality and flow.
  • Example: In poetry, the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables creates a rhythmic pattern. In iambic pentameter, for instance, there are five pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables per line, like in Shakespeare's "To be or not to be, that is the question."

These literary devices are essential tools in poetry and prose, allowing writers to convey emotions, create imagery, and enhance the overall aesthetic and auditory experience of their work.

Verified Answer

What do you understand by Irony? Discuss in detail the following.
a. Irony of situation
b. Irony in satire
c. Ironic contrast

Expert Answer

Irony: Exploring Its Forms and Implications

Irony is a powerful rhetorical device widely used in literature, rhetoric, and everyday language to convey meaning through contrast or unexpected twists. It occurs when there is a divergence between what is expected and what actually happens. Irony serves to engage readers or listeners, provoke thought, and add depth to narratives. In this comprehensive discussion, we will delve into three distinct forms of irony: Irony of Situation, Irony in Satire, and Ironic Contrast.

1. Irony of Situation

Irony of situation, also known as situational irony, is a form of irony where there is a discrepancy between what is anticipated to happen and what unfolds in a particular situation. This form of irony often results in a twist that surprises or amuses the audience.

  • Characteristics of Irony of Situation:

    • Unexpected Outcomes: The primary characteristic of irony of situation is the unanticipated outcome that contradicts expectations.
    • Contrast Between Appearances and Reality: It involves a stark contrast between the apparent situation and the actual situation.
    • Emotional Impact: Irony of situation often elicits strong emotional reactions in the audience, such as amusement, shock, or sympathy.
  • Examples:

    • In O. Henry's short story "The Gift of the Magi," a young couple sacrifices their most prized possessions to buy gifts for each other. The irony lies in their gifts' uselessness – the wife sells her long hair to buy a chain for her husband's pocket watch, while he sells his watch to buy combs for her hair.
    • In William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," the audience knows that Juliet is not dead, but Romeo believes she is and takes his own life. Juliet awakens, finds Romeo dead, and takes her own life in grief. The tragic irony lies in the fact that their deaths could have been avoided with better communication.

2. Irony in Satire

Irony is a fundamental element in satire, a genre of literature or performance that uses humor, sarcasm, or ridicule to critique or expose the flaws, vices, and absurdities of individuals, institutions, or society as a whole.

  • Characteristics of Irony in Satire:

    • Critique Through Exaggeration: Satire often exaggerates or distorts situations, characters, or events to highlight their flaws or absurdities.
    • Sarcasm and Mockery: Irony in satire is often expressed through sarcasm, ridicule, or humor to provoke thought and criticism.
    • Social Commentary: Satire serves as a vehicle for social or political commentary, addressing issues and problems within a given context.
  • Examples:

    • Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" uses irony to suggest that the impoverished Irish should sell their children as food to the rich English. The proposal is meant to satirize British exploitation of Ireland and provoke discussion about poverty and inequality.
    • George Orwell's "Animal Farm" is a satirical allegory that uses irony to criticize the corruption and hypocrisy of totalitarian regimes. The animals' rebellion against their human oppressors eventually leads to a regime more oppressive and corrupt than the one they overthrew, highlighting the irony of the situation.

3. Ironic Contrast

Ironic contrast is a form of irony that involves juxtaposing two contrasting elements or ideas, often to emphasize the discrepancy between them. This form of irony serves to highlight absurdity, hypocrisy, or incongruity.

  • Characteristics of Ironic Contrast:

    • Juxtaposition of Opposites: Ironic contrast relies on the presentation of opposing ideas, values, or characteristics.
    • Emphasis on Discrepancy: The main purpose is to draw attention to the stark difference between the two elements.
    • Provoking Thought: Ironic contrast encourages the audience to reflect on the underlying message or commentary.
  • Examples:

    • In Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the character of the Widow Douglas represents conventional, civilized society, while Huck Finn represents freedom and a simpler way of life. The irony lies in the fact that the "civilized" society Huck is supposed to embrace often proves to be hypocritical and unjust.
    • In Oscar Wilde's "The Picture of Dorian Gray," the eponymous character, Dorian, remains youthful and beautiful while a portrait of him ages and reflects the moral corruption within him. The irony here is the stark contrast between Dorian's outward appearance and his inner degradation.


Irony, in its various forms, is a versatile literary device that enriches storytelling and communication by highlighting discrepancies, provoking thought, and engaging the audience. Whether it's the unexpected outcomes of situational irony, the sharp critique of satire, or the emphasis on contrasting elements in ironic contrast, this rhetorical device plays a crucial role in literature and discourse. Understanding and recognizing irony adds depth to our appreciation of literature and sharpens our ability to analyze and interpret the world around us.

Verified Answer

Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
May she be granted beauty and yet not Beauty to make a stranger’s eye distraught, Or hers before a looking-glass, for such, Being made beautiful overmuch, Consider beauty a sufficient end,Lose natural kindness and maybe The heart-revealing intimacy
The chooses right, and never find a friend. (William Butler Yeats: ‘A Prayer for My Daughter’)
i) What kind of beauty does the poet want his daughter to have?
ii) What are the hazards of being made beautiful overmuch’? How does the poet illustrate his point?

Expert Answer

Beauty with Balance: The Poet's Aspirations for His Daughter

In the poem "A Prayer for My Daughter" by William Butler Yeats, the poet conveys his heartfelt wishes and concerns for his daughter's future. Through his words, he expresses a desire for her to possess a particular kind of beauty and outlines the potential hazards of an excessive focus on physical attractiveness. In this analysis, we will delve into the poet's vision of the ideal beauty for his daughter and the cautionary tale of being "made beautiful overmuch."

1. The Desired Kind of Beauty

The poet opens the poem with a fervent prayer, "May she be granted beauty," indicating his genuine wish for his daughter to possess a form of beauty. However, it is essential to understand what kind of beauty he envisions for her:

  • Balanced Beauty: The poet desires his daughter to have a balanced and harmonious beauty. He does not seek for her an extraordinary or overwhelming physical allure that might be intimidating or unsettling to others. Instead, he wishes for her to have a beauty that is graceful and approachable.

  • Beauty without Vanity: The poet's aspiration is for his daughter to have beauty without vanity. He hopes that her physical appearance will not become the primary focus of her identity. This implies that he wants her to remain humble and not excessively preoccupied with her own attractiveness.

2. Hazards of Being Made Beautiful Overmuch

In the subsequent lines of the poem, Yeats explores the potential hazards of being "made beautiful overmuch." He conveys his concerns about the negative consequences that may arise if his daughter's physical beauty is excessively emphasized or if she herself becomes overly engrossed with it:

  • Loss of Natural Kindness: One of the hazards highlighted by the poet is the risk of losing natural kindness. When a person is made excessively beautiful and constantly praised for their looks, they may begin to prioritize their physical appearance over their character or inner qualities. This can lead to a decline in their natural kindness and empathy towards others.

  • Vanity and Self-Centeredness: Excessive beauty can sometimes breed vanity and self-centeredness. Individuals who consider their physical attractiveness as their greatest asset may become egocentric and self-absorbed. They may focus excessively on their own reflection, as the poet suggests when he mentions, "hers before a looking-glass."

  • Shallow Pursuits: Yeats alludes to the idea that those who are made excessively beautiful might consider their beauty as the ultimate goal in life, as they "consider beauty a sufficient end." This pursuit of physical perfection may lead to shallow and materialistic priorities, causing them to neglect deeper and more meaningful aspects of life.

  • Strained Relationships: The poet expresses concern that individuals overly consumed by their own beauty may struggle to form genuine and heart-revealing relationships. Their preoccupation with their appearance might hinder their ability to connect with others on a deeper level. This is exemplified in the line, "The chooses right, and never find a friend," suggesting that they may find it difficult to establish true friendships due to their superficial focus.

3. The Poet's Cautionary Tale

Yeats effectively conveys his cautionary message through the use of contrasting elements and thought-provoking imagery in the poem. He paints a picture of a daughter who possesses a balanced and unassuming beauty, contrasting it with the potential pitfalls of an excessive emphasis on physical allure.

  • Contrast with Excess: The central theme of the poem is the contrast between the poet's desire for his daughter to have a moderate, balanced beauty and the dangers associated with an extreme preoccupation with physical appearance. This stark contrast allows the poet to emphasize his point effectively.

  • Imagery: Yeats employs vivid imagery to illustrate his concerns. He uses phrases like "a looking-glass" to symbolize excessive self-reflection and vanity. Additionally, the idea of "heart-revealing intimacy" emphasizes the depth and authenticity of human connections, contrasting with the shallowness that excessive beauty might bring.

  • Narrative Flow: The narrative flow of the poem guides the reader through the poet's wishes and concerns. It begins with a prayer for beauty and gradually unfolds to reveal the potential consequences of an excessive focus on that beauty. This narrative structure effectively conveys the poet's message.


In "A Prayer for My Daughter," William Butler Yeats eloquently expresses his heartfelt wishes for his daughter's future, including his desire for her to possess a balanced and unassuming beauty. Through his words, he articulates his concerns about the hazards of being excessively beautiful, highlighting the potential loss of kindness, the risk of vanity and self-centeredness, and the challenges in forming meaningful relationships.

The poem serves as a timeless reflection on the balance between outer beauty and inner qualities, urging readers to consider the importance of humility, kindness, and depth in character. Yeats' message resonates with parents and individuals alike, reminding us of the significance of a well-rounded and genuine sense of beauty that extends beyond the surface.

Verified Answer
Outline the main strategies for being polite while doing things with language.
Expert Answer

Strategies for Being Polite in Language Use

Politeness is an essential aspect of effective communication, promoting positive interactions and maintaining harmonious relationships. Being polite with language involves using words and expressions that show respect, consideration, and sensitivity towards others. Here are the main strategies for being polite in language use:

1. Using Polite Words and Phrases

  • Please: Adding "please" when making requests or asking for favors demonstrates politeness and a willingness to acknowledge the other person's help.

  • Thank You: Expressing gratitude with "thank you" or "thanks" when someone helps or provides assistance is a fundamental polite gesture.

  • You're Welcome: Responding to expressions of gratitude with "you're welcome" shows appreciation for the appreciation, creating a positive cycle of politeness.

2. Using Polite Modals

  • Could: Instead of using more direct and assertive modals like "can" or "must," using "could" softens requests and inquiries, making them more polite. For example, "Could you please pass the salt?"

  • Would: "Would" is often used to form polite questions and offers, such as "Would you like some tea?" or "Would you mind helping me?"

3. Avoiding Negative Language

  • Negative Politeness: When making requests or giving feedback, it's often polite to use negative politeness, which involves being indirect and using mitigating language. For example, "I don't suppose you could lend me a hand?"

  • Avoiding Bluntness: Direct and blunt language can come across as impolite or rude. Using phrases like "I was wondering if…" or "Could I possibly ask…" adds politeness by softening the statement.

4. Using Formal Language When Appropriate

  • Titles and Honorifics: Addressing people with appropriate titles, such as Mr., Mrs., Dr., or using honorifics like "Sir" and "Madam," adds formality and politeness to communication.

  • Formal Tone: In professional or formal contexts, maintaining a formal tone in both spoken and written language is essential for politeness.

5. Polite Expressions in Disagreements or Refusals

  • Apologizing: When disagreeing or refusing a request, expressing regret or empathy can soften the impact. For example, "I'm sorry, but I can't make it to the meeting."

  • Offering Alternatives: Suggesting alternatives or compromises can be a polite way to handle disagreements or refusals. For instance, "I can't do that today, but I can help you tomorrow."

6. Active Listening and Empathy

  • Acknowledgment: Showing that you are actively listening and acknowledging the other person's feelings and perspective demonstrates politeness and respect.

  • Empathetic Language: Using empathetic language, such as "I understand how you feel" or "I can imagine that must be difficult," can convey understanding and consideration.

7. Avoiding Impersonal Language

  • Personalizing Communication: Instead of using impersonal or generic language, addressing people by name and using "I" statements can make interactions more personal and polite.

  • Using Polite Openings and Closings: Begin conversations or messages with polite greetings (e.g., "Hello," "Dear," "Hi") and end them with appropriate closings (e.g., "Sincerely," "Best regards," "Yours faithfully").

8. Cultural Sensitivity

  • Respecting Cultural Norms: Being aware of cultural differences in communication styles and etiquette is crucial for politeness. What is considered polite in one culture may not be in another.

9. Nonverbal Communication

  • Eye Contact and Body Language: Maintaining appropriate eye contact, using open and non-threatening body language, and smiling when appropriate are nonverbal ways to convey politeness.

  • Tone of Voice: The tone of voice can greatly affect how polite a message sounds. Speaking calmly, pleasantly, and respectfully is essential.

10. Timeliness and Punctuality

  • Being On Time: Being punctual and respecting others' time is a significant aspect of politeness, whether in meetings, appointments, or social gatherings.

  • Responding Promptly: Responding to messages or requests in a timely manner shows consideration for others.

11. Avoiding Offensive Language

  • Avoiding Insults and Swearing: Using offensive language, insults, or swearing should be avoided to maintain a polite and respectful tone.

12. Expressing Positive Intentions

  • Clarifying Positive Intentions: When giving feedback or constructive criticism, it's essential to clarify that your intentions are to help or improve the situation. For example, "I'm providing this feedback to help you succeed."

13. Graciousness

  • Accepting Compliments Graciously: Responding to compliments with humility and grace rather than deflecting or downplaying them is a sign of politeness.

  • Expressing Good Wishes: Wishing others well, such as saying "Have a great day" or "Take care," adds a polite and friendly touch to interactions.

In conclusion, being polite in language use involves a combination of words, tone, and nonverbal cues that convey respect, consideration, and empathy towards others. These strategies are essential in various social, professional, and cultural contexts, contributing to positive and effective communication. Politeness fosters positive relationships and creates an atmosphere of mutual respect and understanding.

Verified Answer

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