IGNOU BBYCT-135 Solved Assignment 2024 | B.Sc. CBCS Botany
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IGNOU BBYCT-135 Assignment Question Paper 2024
- Write short notes on the following:
x) Resurrection plants
- a) Enlist main characteristics of meristematic tissues.
b) Classify meristems into different types on the basis of the plane of division and function in the plant body.
- Describe in brief the shoot and root apical organization according to Histogen theory.
- a) Enlist anatomical characteristics that distinguish a primary root of a seed plant.
b) With the help of a well labeled diagram compare the internal tissue organization of a primary dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous root.
- a) With the help of well labeled diagram describe the structure of a stomata.
b) Describe the functions of stomata. Classify the stomata on the basis of ontogeny and morphology.
- What are Trichomes? Describe different types of Trichomes and their role in defense of plants.
- With the help of well labeled diagram describe the ABC Model of Flower Organization
- What is Apomixis? Describe the sporophytic and gametophytic apoxixis.
BBYCT-135 Sample Solution 2024
- Write short notes on the following:
Structure of Plasmodesmata
- Physical Composition: Plasmodesmata are lined with the plasma membrane and contain a thin strand of cytoplasm. They can traverse single or multiple layers of cell walls.
- Desmotubule: Inside each plasmodesma, there is a central tubular structure called a desmotubule, derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, which is surrounded by a cytoplasmic sleeve.
Function and Significance
- Transport and Communication: Plasmodesmata allow the exchange of small molecules, such as sugars, amino acids, and ions, between cells. They are also important for the movement of larger molecules, including proteins and RNA, which are crucial for signaling and developmental processes.
- Symplastic Transport: They facilitate symplastic transport, where substances move from cell to cell via the cytoplasm, bypassing the extracellular space. This is in contrast to apoplastic transport, which occurs through the cell walls and extracellular spaces.
- Coordination of Cellular Activities: By allowing direct communication and transport between cells, plasmodesmata play a key role in coordinating cellular activities across different parts of the plant, such as during growth, development, and responses to environmental stimuli.
Regulation of Transport
- Selective Permeability: Plasmodesmata are selectively permeable. They can regulate the size and type of molecules that pass through, which is crucial for controlling the cell’s internal environment and intercellular communication.
- Dynamic Nature: The size and permeability of plasmodesmata can change in response to various factors, including developmental cues and stress conditions, allowing the plant to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Role in Plant Pathology
- Pathogen Spread: Some plant pathogens, such as viruses, exploit plasmodesmata to spread from cell to cell, circumventing the plant’s defense mechanisms that are active at the cell wall level.
- Leaf Development: In plants, new leaves begin as small bumps (primordia) at the shoot apex. The plastochron measures the time taken for a new primordium to form after the previous one.
- Indicator of Growth Rate: The length of the plastochron can indicate the growth rate of a plant. A shorter plastochron means leaves are produced more rapidly, which is often seen in faster-growing plants or under optimal growing conditions.
Factors Influencing Plastochron
- Genetic Factors: The rate of leaf initiation is genetically controlled, with different plant species and even different cultivars within a species having characteristic plastochron intervals.
- Environmental Conditions: External factors like temperature, light, water availability, and nutrients can influence the plastochron. For example, higher temperatures may accelerate growth and reduce the plastochron.
Significance in Plant Biology
- Developmental Studies: The plastochron is a key concept in developmental biology, helping researchers understand how plants regulate growth and development at a fundamental level.
- Modeling Plant Growth: In agronomy and horticulture, understanding and manipulating the plastochron can aid in crop improvement and cultivation strategies, as it relates to leaf canopy development and overall plant productivity.
Research and Practical Applications
- Molecular Basis: Research into the molecular mechanisms that control the plastochron is ongoing, with implications for enhancing agricultural productivity and understanding evolutionary adaptations.
- Phenological Studies: In ecological studies, the plastochron can be used to track and predict phenological events, such as the timing of leaf emergence, which is important for understanding ecological interactions and responses to climate change.
Structure and Location
- Cellular Components: Statoliths are dense, starch-filled organelles, typically amyloplasts, which are a type of plastid. Their high density relative to the surrounding cytoplasm and organelles is key to their function.
- Location: They are primarily located in specialized gravity-sensing cells known as statocytes, found in the root cap (in roots) and at the shoot end (in shoots).
Function in Gravitropism
- Gravity Sensing: Statoliths act as gravity sensors. In response to gravity, they settle to the lower part of the cell, a process that is believed to trigger a series of biochemical and physiological responses in the plant.
- Signal Transduction: The movement and settling of statoliths are thought to be part of the mechanism by which plants detect and respond to changes in orientation with respect to gravity, a phenomenon known as gravitropism.
Role in Plant Growth
- Root Growth: In roots, the presence and position of statoliths guide the direction of root growth, ensuring that roots grow downwards (positive gravitropism), which is crucial for anchorage and water and nutrient uptake.
- Shoot Development: In shoots, statoliths contribute to negative gravitropism, the tendency of shoots to grow upwards, away from the gravitational pull, which is essential for light exposure and photosynthesis.
Research and Implications
- Understanding Mechanisms: Research on statoliths enhances our understanding of how plants perceive and respond to their environment, particularly in relation to gravity.
- Agricultural Applications: Insights gained from studying statoliths and gravitropism can have practical applications in agriculture and horticulture, particularly in understanding how plants adapt to different growing conditions and optimizing plant growth.
Structure and Function of Velamen
Multilayered Tissue: Velamen is composed of multiple layers of dead cells, which are typically thick-walled and have a spongy texture. This structure is highly porous and can quickly absorb water.
Water Absorption: One of the primary functions of velamen is to rapidly absorb water and nutrients from the environment, such as from rain, dew, or humidity. The roots can quickly soak up moisture when available, which is then stored and used during drier periods.
Protective Barrier: The velamen also acts as a protective layer for the root’s inner tissues. It protects the roots from physical damage and helps prevent water loss due to evaporation.
Support and Attachment: In epiphytic orchids, the velamen helps the roots attach to surfaces like tree bark or rocks. This anchorage is crucial for plants that do not grow in soil but rather upon other plants or structures.
Adaptation to Epiphytic Lifestyle: Velamen is a key adaptation for epiphytic orchids, allowing them to thrive in nutrient-poor, aerial environments where rapid water uptake is essential for survival.
Symbiotic Relationships: The structure of velamen facilitates symbiotic relationships with various microorganisms, including mycorrhizal fungi, which can aid in nutrient acquisition.
Types of Mycorrhiza
- Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM): Formed by fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota, they penetrate the root cells, forming arbuscules. AM is common in herbaceous plants and grasses.
- Ectomycorrhiza (EM): The fungi form a sheath around the root tip and penetrate the root between cells. EM is typical in forest trees, especially in temperate regions.
- Other Forms: Includes ericoid mycorrhiza, common in acid soil-loving plants like heathers, and orchid mycorrhiza, essential for the germination and growth of orchid seeds.
Functions and Benefits
- Nutrient Exchange: The primary function of mycorrhiza is the exchange of nutrients. Fungi enhance the host plant’s nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, in exchange for carbohydrates (sugars) produced by the plant through photosynthesis.
- Water Absorption: Mycorrhizal fungi can also improve the plant’s water uptake, enhancing drought tolerance.
- Disease Resistance: They can confer increased resistance to root pathogens and contribute to overall plant health.
- Soil Structure: Mycorrhizal hyphae help in binding soil particles together, improving soil structure and health.
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Health: Mycorrhizal associations are crucial for the health and productivity of many ecosystems. They play a key role in plant colonization, survival, and diversity.
- Carbon Cycling: By receiving carbon from plants, mycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to the soil carbon pool, influencing carbon cycling processes.
Application in Agriculture and Forestry
- Sustainable Farming Practices: Mycorrhiza can be used to improve crop yields, reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers, and increase plant resilience against environmental stresses.
- Reforestation and Land Rehabilitation: They are also employed in reforestation projects and the rehabilitation of degraded lands.
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