Front Page of IGNOU BBYET-143 Solved Assignment for B.Sc. CBCS Botany, 2024 Edition

IGNOU BBYET-143 Solved Assignment 2024 | B.Sc. CBCS Botany

Solved By – Anjali Patel – Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) from Mumbai University


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IGNOU BBYET-143 Assignment Question Paper 2024



  1. Write short notes on the following:
    i) Domestication
    ii) Molecular Assisted Breeding
    iii) Cryopreservation
    iv) Orthodox seed
    v) Recalcitrant seed
    vi) Hybridoma technology (MAB)
    vii) Vector
    viii) Horizontal gene transfer
  2. Describe the origin, cytology and distribution of Triticum aestivum Linn.
  3. Describe the origin, morphological characters and uses of Oryza sativa Linn.
  4. Enlist the bioactive compounds present in legumes and associated health benefits.
  5. a) What is Biotechnology? Categorization and describe various branches of Biotechnology on the basis of colour.
    b) Describe any five applications of Biotechnology.
  6. a) What is a genetically modified organism (GMO)? With a help of a well labeled diagram
    b) Describe the technique of plant tissue culture and plant genetic engineering.
  7. With a help of well labeled diagram describe the technique of DNA fingerprinting and PCR.
  8. What are restriction enzymes? Describe its classification and application in molecular biology.
  9. Describe the procedure for construction of Genomic and cDNA libraries.
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BBYET-143 Sample Solution 2024



BBYET-143 Solved Assignment 2024
  1. Write short notes on the following:
i) Domestication
Domestication is a process that involves the selective breeding and modification of plants and animals by humans for their own benefit. It has played a fundamental role in the development of agriculture, which has in turn shaped human civilization. Here’s a short note on domestication:
Origin of Domestication:
  • Domestication began around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago during the Neolithic Revolution, a pivotal period in human history. It marked the shift from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to settled agriculture.
  • Initially, humans selected and cultivated wild plants with desirable traits, such as larger seeds or edible fruits. They also tamed and bred wild animals for traits like docility and increased productivity.
Impact on Plants:
  • In plants, domestication led to the development of crop species with traits like higher yield, larger fruits, and reduced seed shattering. Examples include wheat, rice, and maize.
  • The process of domestication often resulted in genetic changes that distinguish domesticated plants from their wild ancestors.
Impact on Animals:
  • Domestication of animals such as dogs, cows, and chickens led to changes in behavior, morphology, and physiology. For example, dogs were initially domesticated for hunting and later for companionship.
  • Selective breeding has resulted in specialized breeds for various purposes, such as dairy cows and meat-producing chickens.
Advantages of Domestication:
  • Domesticated plants and animals provided a more stable and predictable source of food, leading to population growth and the development of civilizations.
  • Domestication allowed humans to settle in one place, build permanent dwellings, and develop complex societies with specialization of labor.
Challenges of Domestication:
  • The process of domestication often involved trade-offs. For example, some domesticated plants lost their ability to disperse seeds naturally, relying on human cultivation.
  • Genetic homogeneity in domesticated populations made them vulnerable to diseases and pests.
Ongoing Domestication:
  • Domestication continues to this day, with modern agriculture relying on selectively bred crops and livestock.
  • Advances in biotechnology, such as genetic engineering, are expanding the possibilities for domestication.
ii) Molecular Assisted Breeding
Molecular-assisted breeding, also known as molecular breeding or marker-assisted breeding, is a modern and highly efficient approach to plant and animal breeding that incorporates molecular genetics and genomics techniques to improve the breeding process. This technique revolutionizes traditional breeding methods by enabling breeders to make more informed and precise decisions about which individuals to select for crossing and which traits to enhance. Here’s a short note on molecular-assisted breeding:
Key Components of Molecular-Assisted Breeding:
  1. Molecular Markers: Molecular markers, such as DNA markers (e.g., SSRs, SNPs), are used to identify specific genes or regions of the genome associated with desirable traits, such as disease resistance, yield, or quality.
  2. Genomic Information: The availability of genomic information and databases allows breeders to access comprehensive genetic information about the organisms they are breeding, facilitating the selection of the best parents.
  3. Selection Efficiency: Molecular-assisted breeding streamlines the breeding process, reducing the time and resources required to develop new varieties or breeds.
Advantages of Molecular-Assisted Breeding:
  1. Precision: It allows for precise selection of individuals with the desired genetic traits, reducing the need for extensive field trials.
  2. Acceleration: Breeding programs can be accelerated, resulting in the faster development of improved varieties.
  3. Disease Resistance: Identification of genes associated with disease resistance helps in developing crops and livestock that are less susceptible to diseases.
  4. Quality Improvement: It enables the enhancement of product quality, including nutritional content and flavor.
  • Crop Improvement: Molecular-assisted breeding is widely used in developing new crop varieties with improved yield, stress tolerance, and nutritional content.
  • Livestock Improvement: It is applied to enhance livestock breeds for traits such as meat quality, milk production, and disease resistance.
  • Conservation: Molecular markers are used in the conservation of endangered species and germplasm banks.
iii) Cryopreservation
Cryopreservation is a biotechnology technique that involves freezing and storing biological samples, such as cells, tissues, or even whole organisms, at extremely low temperatures, typically below -150°C (-238°F) or even colder. This process is used to preserve the viability and genetic integrity of living materials for an extended period. Here’s a brief note on cryopreservation:
Principles of Cryopreservation:
  • Cryopreservation relies on the principle that freezing biological samples at ultra-low temperatures can effectively arrest metabolic and biochemical processes, preventing cellular damage and degradation.
Applications of Cryopreservation:
  1. Biological Research: Cryopreservation is widely used in biological and medical research to store cell lines, tissues, and microorganisms for future experiments and studies.
  2. Assisted Reproduction: In human and animal reproduction, cryopreservation is utilized to store sperm, eggs, embryos, and reproductive tissues. This allows for fertility preservation and facilitates in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures.
  3. Conservation: Cryopreservation is used in conservation efforts to preserve genetic diversity and endangered species. It helps maintain the genetic heritage of rare and threatened organisms.
  4. Organ Transplantation: Research is ongoing to develop cryopreservation techniques for organs and tissues used in transplantation. Successful cryopreservation of organs could extend their viability and increase the availability of donor organs.
  • Cryopreservation requires precise control of temperature and the use of cryoprotectants to prevent ice crystal formation, which can damage cells.
Future Developments:
  • Advancements in cryopreservation techniques, including vitrification (a process that reduces ice crystal formation), are ongoing. These innovations aim to improve the success rates of cryopreservation across various applications.
iv) Orthodox seed
Orthodox seeds are a type of seed known for their remarkable ability to withstand desiccation (drying out) and extreme environmental conditions without losing their viability. This characteristic sets them apart from recalcitrant seeds, which cannot tolerate drying and must be planted immediately after harvesting. Here’s a brief note on orthodox seeds:
Characteristics of Orthodox Seeds:
  • Desiccation Tolerance: Orthodox seeds can endure significant drying without losing their ability to germinate. This trait allows them to survive in a dehydrated state for extended periods.
  • Longevity: Orthodox seeds can remain viable for many years, making them suitable for long-term storage. This longevity is essential for seed banks and conservation efforts.
  • Wide Range of Plants: Orthodox seeds are found in a broad range of plant species, including many crop plants, forest trees, and wildflowers.
  • Conservation: The desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds makes them suitable candidates for preservation in seed banks, ensuring the conservation of plant genetic diversity.
  • Commercial Agriculture: Many major crop species, such as wheat, rice, and maize, produce orthodox seeds. Their ability to be stored for extended periods is advantageous for agricultural practices and food security.
In summary, orthodox seeds possess unique qualities that enable them to endure drying and maintain viability for extended periods. These seeds play a crucial role in agriculture, conservation, and research, contributing to the sustainability of plant species and global food production.
v) Recalcitrant seed
Recalcitrant seeds are a type of seed characterized by their inability to withstand desiccation (drying out) without losing viability. Unlike orthodox seeds, which can endure drying and are suitable for long-term storage, recalcitrant seeds require immediate planting or specialized handling to maintain their viability. Here’s a brief note on recalcitrant seeds:
Characteristics of Recalcitrant Seeds:
  • Desiccation Sensitivity: Recalcitrant seeds quickly lose their ability to germinate if they are allowed to dry out. They must be planted or processed shortly after harvesting.
  • Limited Storage Life: Due to their sensitivity to drying, recalcitrant seeds cannot be stored for extended periods like orthodox seeds. This limitation poses challenges for conservation efforts and seed banking.
  • Natural Habitat: Recalcitrant seeds are often found in species native to tropical and subtropical regions, where they have evolved to germinate quickly and grow in the moist conditions of their natural habitats.
  • Conservation Challenges: Preserving the genetic diversity of plants with recalcitrant seeds can be challenging, as they are difficult to store and maintain in seed banks.
In summary, recalcitrant seeds are characterized by their susceptibility to drying and limited storage life. They are primarily found in species adapted to humid and tropical environments and pose unique challenges for conservation and propagation.
vi) Hybridoma technology (MAB)
Hybridoma technology, also known as Monoclonal Antibody (MAB) technology, is a revolutionary technique in the field of biotechnology that allows for the production of highly specific and consistent monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are identical antibodies produced by a single type of immune cell and are used extensively in various biomedical and research applications. Here’s a brief note on hybridoma technology:
Key Features of Hybridoma Technology:
  1. Fusion of Cells: Hybridoma technology involves the fusion of two types of cells – B lymphocytes (responsible for producing antibodies) and myeloma cells (cancerous cells with the ability to divide indefinitely). This fusion creates hybrid cells known as hybridomas.
  2. Monoclonal Antibody Production: Hybridomas have the unique ability to produce a single type of monoclonal antibody specific to a particular antigen. These antibodies are highly pure and consistent.
  3. Screening and Selection: Hybridomas are screened to identify clones that produce antibodies against the target antigen of interest. These selected clones are then cultured to produce a continuous and renewable source of monoclonal antibodies.
Applications of Hybridoma Technology:
  • Diagnosis: Monoclonal antibodies are used in diagnostic tests to detect specific proteins or pathogens in clinical samples.
  • Therapeutics: Monoclonal antibodies are employed as therapeutic agents in treating various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.
  • Research: Hybridoma technology is indispensable in research laboratories for studying and characterizing specific proteins, antigens, and cellular processes.
  • Biotechnology: It plays a vital role in biotechnology processes, such as protein purification and assay development.
In summary, hybridoma technology revolutionized the field of immunology and biomedical research by enabling the production of highly specific and consistent monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies have a wide range of applications in medicine, diagnostics, and scientific research.
vii) Vector
In biology, a vector refers to an organism or agent that carries and transmits a pathogen (such as a virus or bacteria) from one host to another. Vectors play a critical role in the transmission of infectious diseases, and they can be either biological or mechanical. Here’s a brief note on vectors:
Types of Vectors:
  1. Biological Vectors: These vectors are living organisms, typically arthropods like mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas, that can transmit diseases by acting as intermediate hosts for pathogens. For example, mosquitoes can transmit the malaria parasite.
  2. Mechanical Vectors: Mechanical vectors are non-living carriers that transfer pathogens without being infected themselves. They can carry pathogens on their bodies or through contaminated materials. Houseflies, for instance, can mechanically transmit bacteria from fecal matter to food.
Role in Disease Transmission:
Vectors are crucial in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. They serve as vehicles for the transfer of pathogens from infected individuals to susceptible hosts, allowing diseases to spread within populations.
Control and Prevention:
Controlling vectors is essential for managing and preventing vector-borne diseases. Strategies may include insecticide use, habitat modification, and public health interventions.
In summary, vectors are integral to the transmission of infectious diseases, and understanding their biology and behavior is vital for disease control and prevention efforts.
viii) Horizontal gene transfer
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a mechanism of genetic exchange that occurs between different species or organisms, allowing for the transfer of genetic material, such as genes or DNA fragments, laterally across species boundaries. Unlike vertical gene transfer, which occurs from parents to offspring, HGT involves the transfer of genetic material between non-related organisms. Here’s a brief note on horizontal gene transfer:
Key Points:
  1. Mechanisms: HGT can occur through various mechanisms, including conjugation (direct transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells), transformation (uptake of free DNA from the environment), and transduction (transfer of genetic material by viruses).
  2. Common in Microorganisms: HGT is particularly common in bacteria and archaea, where it can lead to rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments.
  3. Role in Evolution: HGT can introduce new genes or traits into an organism’s genome, leading to evolutionary innovations. It plays a significant role in the evolution of microbial diversity.
  4. Implications for Genetic Engineering: HGT has implications for genetic engineering and the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as transferred genes may spread to non-target organisms.
  5. Antibiotic Resistance: HGT is a major driver of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, as resistance genes can be transferred horizontally, making it a global health concern.
In summary, horizontal gene transfer is a fundamental biological process that allows genetic material to be exchanged between different species, impacting evolution, adaptation, and genetic diversity. It plays a critical role in the microbial world and has important implications for various fields, including biotechnology and medicine.

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